Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicle Test Procedure

New test method for fuel economy and emissions

Since the 1980s, European new car emissions and fuel economy tests have been carried out using the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). From 1 September 2017, a new test has been introduced, the Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP), to give both car buyers and owners a more realistic understanding of a car's performance.

What is WLTP?

The European Union has developed a new test called the Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP) which came into effect on 1st September 2017 for new type approvals and 1 September 2018 for all vehicles. This will replace the current New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) test procedure for establishing the official Fuel Consumption and CO2 emissions of new cars.

The new WLTP laboratory test will also be supplemented by an emissions test that measures pollutants directly on the road: RDE (Real Driving Emissions) and was brought in to the new testing regime to provide a closer representation of ‘real-world’ fuel consumption and CO2 figures and provide model specific values at the point of sale.

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What is RDE?

This takes place on real roads, the RDE test compliments lab tests by measuring that a car delivers low pollutant emissions on the road.

Real driving emission (RDE) tests will measure the pollutants, such as NOx, emitted by cars while driven on the road. RDE will not replace laboratory tests, such as the current NEDC and the future WLTP but it will be additional to them. Europe is the first region in the world to introduce such on-the-road testing, marking a major leap in the testing of car emissions.

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Introducing greater clarity

Everyday tests, realistic results

The new WLTP tests will ensure that lab measurements now better reflect the situations you will experience in everyday life. This means that fuel consumption and emissions values displayed for new cars are a far better representation of what you are actually likely to achieve.

At Toyota, we welcome the change to WLTP, which will provide our customers with a more accurate basis for calculating fuel economy and emissions. As a leader in clean mobility, we’ve spent decades researching how to make vehicles that are kinder to the environment, producing technologies such as hybrid that have proved their value in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and helping the move towards a low carbon society.

“Hybrid is the backbone of our powertrain programme and will help us cut our vehicle carbon emissions by 90% by 2050 compared to 2010.”

Dr. Johan van Zyl, President and CEO of Toyota Motor Europe

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NEDC to WLTP: what’s changing?

With advances in vehicle technology and changes in driving conditions, the near-40-year-old NEDC driving cycle test has been replaced. To give you a more accurate way of calculating and comparing a car’s fuel consumption and emissions, the new WLTP test introduces more realistic testing conditions, so that lab measurements better reflect the on-road performance of a car.

Test Cycle Dynamic tests which are more representative of real-driving behaviour
Cycle Time Test lasts 30 minutes, an increase of 10 minutes
Cycle Distance 23.25 kilometres long, over twice the old distance
Driving Phases More dynamic phases: 52% urban and 48% non-urban
Average & Maximum Speeds Average speed is 46.5km/h (an increase of 12.5km/h) while top speed is raised to 131km/h
Optional Equipment Additional vehicle options (impacting CO2 and consumption) are taken into account
Gear Shifts Each vehicle has different, rather than fixed, gear shift points
Test Temperatures Measurements now taken at 23ºC (and CO2 values corrected to 14ºC) vs 20-30ºC.

What does WLTP mean for me?

WLTP will facilitate a better means of assessing how high the fuel consumption and CO2 emissions of the vehicle may be on average. At the same time, however, more realistic values will also mean higher consumption and CO2 values for vehicles with combustion engines and a lower electric range for electric vehicles (including plug-in hybrids). These new tests will not have any effect or change the performance of the vehicle.
As Toyota transition to WLTP the following type approval timings will apply:

Commercial and Passenger vehicles (types M1 and N1 (i)):

• From September 2017, all new model introductions are subject to WLTP type approval and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) testing.

• From September 2018, all new registrations need to comply to WLTP type approval.

• From September 2019, all new registrations need to comply to RDE testing. Light Commercial Vehicles (Category N1

• From September 2018, all new Light Commercial vehicle model introductions will be subject to WLTP type approval and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) testing.

• From September 2019, all new registrations of Light Commercial Vehicles need to comply to type approval under WLTP and all new registrations will be subject to RDE testing.

Modified: 20 December 2019

Information correct at time of publication.

Further information

What impact will this have on taxation?

The current NEDC test figures will continue to be used for the official emissions (CO2) and fuel consumption (MPG) values. As and when WLTP figures become available for new model introductions, these will also be available for customers. It is worth noting that the NEDC CO2 values will be used for taxation purposes until 5th April 2020. From the 6th April 2020 WLTP CO2 figures will be used for taxation purposes.

Why has the NEDC value of my car has suddenly increased?

For a transitional period of time (until the 6th April 2020), NEDC values still need to be generated in parallel to WLTP values. As the old NEDC procedure can no longer be used, regulations mandate that WLTP-CO2 values will be translated back to NEDC-equivalent values by a ‘correlation exercise’ carried out with a simulation tool developed by the European Commission or by physical re-testing, resulting in higher NEDC CO2 values for your car.

Will WLTP test for other air quality pollutants?

WLTP is also used to measure substances such as carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particles (PM/PN).

When will light commercial vehicle values change?

WLTP certification is mandatory for all light commercial vehicles from 1 September 2019.